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Could the fight against ISIS give Kurds more autonomy?

The first modern Kurdish nationalist movement emerged in with an uprising led by a Kurdish landowner and head of the powerful Shemdinan family, Sheik Ubeydullah , who demanded political autonomy or outright independence for Kurds as well as the recognition of a Kurdistan state without interference from Turkish or Persian authorities.

Kurdish nationalism emerged after World War I with the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire , which had historically successfully integrated but not assimilated the Kurds, through use of forced repression of Kurdish movements to gain independence.

Revolts did occur sporadically but only in with the uprising led by Sheik Ubeydullah did the Kurds as an ethnic group or nation make demands.

Ottoman sultan Abdul Hamid II r. This strategy appears to have been successful, given the loyalty displayed by the Kurdish Hamidiye regiments during World War I.

The Kurdish ethno-nationalist movement that emerged following World War I and the end of the Ottoman Empire in largely represented a reaction to the changes taking place in mainstream Turkey, primarily to the radical secularization , the centralization of authority, and to the rampant Turkish nationalism in the new Turkish Republic.

Jakob Künzler , head of a missionary hospital in Urfa , documented the large-scale ethnic cleansing of both Armenians and Kurds by the Young Turks.

The Kurds were perceived [ by whom? In order to eliminate this threat, Young Turks embarked on a large-scale deportation of Kurds from the regions of Djabachdjur , Palu , Musch , Erzurum and Bitlis.

Around , Kurds were forced to move southwards to Urfa and then westwards to Aintab and Marasch. In the summer of Kurds were moved to Konya in central Anatolia.

Through these measures, the Young Turk leaders aimed at weakening the political influence of the Kurds by deporting them from their ancestral lands and by dispersing them in small pockets of exiled communities.

By the end of World War I, up to , Kurds had been forcibly deported and almost half of the displaced perished.

Kurds backed by the United Kingdom declared independence in and established the Republic of Ararat. Turkey suppressed Kurdist revolts in , , and —, while Iran in the s suppressed Simko Shikak at Lake Urmia and Jaafar Sultan of the Hewraman region, who controlled the region between Marivan and north of Halabja.

From — in Iraq a Kingdom of Kurdistan existed. When Ba'athist administrators thwarted Kurdish nationalist ambitions in Iraq , war broke out in the s.

In the Kurds rejected limited territorial self-rule within Iraq, demanding larger areas, including the oil-rich Kirkuk region.

During the s and s, several large-scale Kurdish revolts took place in Kurdistan. Following these rebellions, the area of Turkish Kurdistan was put under martial law and many of the Kurds were displaced.

The Turkish government also encouraged resettlement of Albanians from Kosovo and Assyrians in the region to change the make-up of the population.

These events and measures led to long-lasting mutual distrust between Ankara and the Kurds. Kurdish officers from the Iraqi army [ This offer was declined.

Kurds are often regarded as "the largest ethnic group without a state ", [] [] [] [] [] [] Some researchers, such as Martin van Bruinessen , [] who seem to agree with the official Turkish position, argue that while some level of Kurdish cultural, social, political and ideological heterogeneity may exist, the Kurdish community has long thrived over the centuries as a generally peaceful and well-integrated part of Turkish society, with hostilities erupting only in recent years.

The exact origins of the name Kurd are unclear. There are, however, dissenting views, which do not derive the name of the Kurds from Qardu and Corduene but opt for derivation from Cyrtii Cyrtaei instead.

Regardless of its possible roots in ancient toponymy, the ethnonym Kurd might be derived from a term kwrt- used in Middle Persian as a common noun to refer to " nomads " or "tent-dwellers," which could be applied as an attribute to any Iranian group with such a lifestyle.

The term gained the characteristic of an ethnonym following the Muslim conquest of Persia , as it was adopted into Arabic and gradually became associated with an amalgamation of Iranian and Iranicised tribes and groups in the region.

Sherefxan Bidlisi in the 16th century states that there are four division of "Kurds": Kurmanj , Lur , Kalhor and Guran , each of which speak a different dialect or language variation.

Paul notes that the 16th-century usage of the term Kurd as recorded by Bidlisi, regardless of linguistic grouping, might still reflect an incipient Northwestern Iranian "Kurdish" ethnic identity uniting the Kurmanj , Kalhur , and Guran.

This classification was changed to the new euphemism of Eastern Turk in Several large scale Kurdish revolts in , and were suppressed by the Turkish government and more than one million Kurds were forcibly relocated between and The use of Kurdish language, dress, folklore , and names were banned and the Kurdish-inhabited areas remained under martial law until At about the same time, generational fissures gave birth to two new organizations: the National Liberation of Kurdistan and the Kurdistan Workers Party.

The words "Kurds", " Kurdistan ", or "Kurdish" were officially banned by the Turkish government. There is ongoing discrimination against and "otherization" of Kurds in society.

The causes of the depopulation included mainly the Turkish state's military operations, state's political actions, Turkish deep state actions, the poverty of the southeast and PKK atrocities against Kurdish clans which were against them.

Since the s, the European Court of Human Rights has condemned Turkey for the thousands of human rights abuses. Leyla Zana , the first Kurdish female MP from Diyarbakir, caused an uproar in Turkish Parliament after adding the following sentence in Kurdish to her parliamentary oath during the swearing-in ceremony in "I take this oath for the brotherhood of the Turkish and Kurdish peoples.

Zana was awarded the Sakharov Prize for human rights by the European Parliament in She was released in amid warnings from European institutions that the continued imprisonment of the four Kurdish MPs would affect Turkey's bid to join the EU.

Officially protected death squads are accused of the disappearance of 3, Kurds and Assyrians in and in the so-called "mystery killings".

Kurdish politicians, human-rights activists, journalists, teachers and other members of intelligentsia were among the victims.

Virtually none of the perpetrators were investigated nor punished. Turkish government also encouraged Islamic extremist group Hezbollah to assassinate suspected PKK members and often ordinary Kurds.

In Tunceli, it is the state that is evacuating and burning villages. In the southeast there are two million people left homeless.

The Kurdish region of Iran has been a part of the country since ancient times. Nearly all Kurdistan was part of Persian Empire until its Western part was lost during wars against the Ottoman Empire.

Unlike in other Kurdish-populated countries, there are strong ethnolinguistical and cultural ties between Kurds, Persians and others as Iranian peoples.

Kurdish literature in all of its forms Kurmanji , Sorani , and Gorani has been developed within historical Iranian boundaries under strong influence of the Persian language.

The government of Iran has never employed the same level of brutality against its own Kurds like Turkey or Iraq , but it has always been implacably opposed to any suggestion of Kurdish separatism.

Shia Islam in the particular case of Iran. During the late s and early s, tribal revolt led by Kurdish chieftain Simko Shikak struck north western Iran.

Although elements of Kurdish nationalism were present in this movement, historians agree these were hardly articulate enough to justify a claim that recognition of Kurdish identity was a major issue in Simko's movement, and he had to rely heavily on conventional tribal motives.

Reza Shah 's military victory over Kurdish and Turkic tribal leaders initiated a repressive era toward non- Iranian minorities.

As a response to growing Pan-Turkism and Pan-Arabism in region which were seen as potential threats to the territorial integrity of Iran, Pan-Iranist ideology has been developed in the early s.

It culminated in the Iran crisis of which included a separatist attempt of KDP-I and communist groups [] to establish the Soviet puppet government [] [] [] called Republic of Mahabad.

It arose along with Azerbaijan People's Government , another Soviet puppet state. Several nationalist and Marxist insurgencies continued for decades , , —96 led by KDP-I and Komalah , but those two organization have never advocated a separate Kurdish state or greater Kurdistan as did the PKK in Turkey.

Kurdish Marxist groups have been marginalized in Iran since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Kurds have been well integrated in Iranian political life during reign of various governments.

Kurdish language is today used more than at any other time since the Revolution , including in several newspapers and among schoolchildren. They are the majority in at least three provinces in northern Iraq which are together known as Iraqi Kurdistan.

Kurds also have a presence in Kirkuk , Mosul , Khanaqin , and Baghdad. Around , Kurds live in the Iraqi capital Baghdad , 50, in the city of Mosul and around , elsewhere in southern Iraq.

Kurds led by Mustafa Barzani were engaged in heavy fighting against successive Iraqi regimes from to In March , Iraq announced a peace plan providing for Kurdish autonomy.

The plan was to be implemented in four years. Iraq started another wave of Arabization by moving Arabs to the oil fields in Kurdistan, particularly those around Kirkuk.

During the Iran—Iraq War in the s, the regime implemented anti-Kurdish policies and a de facto civil war broke out. Iraq was widely condemned by the international community, but was never seriously punished for oppressive measures such as the mass murder of hundreds of thousands of civilians, the wholesale destruction of thousands of villages and the deportation of thousands of Kurds to southern and central Iraq.

The genocidal campaign, conducted between and and culminating in , carried out by the Iraqi government against the Kurdish population was called Anfal "Spoils of War".

The Anfal campaign led to destruction of over two thousand villages and killing of , Kurdish civilians. After the collapse of the Kurdish uprising in March , Iraqi troops recaptured most of the Kurdish areas and 1.

It is estimated that close to 20, Kurds succumbed to death due to exhaustion, lack of food, exposure to cold and disease.

On 5 April , UN Security Council passed resolution which condemned the repression of Iraqi Kurdish civilians and demanded that Iraq end its repressive measures and allow immediate access to international humanitarian organizations.

In mid-April, the Coalition established safe havens inside Iraqi borders and prohibited Iraqi planes from flying north of 36th parallel.

In late October, Iraqi government retaliated by imposing a food and fuel embargo on the Kurds and stopping to pay civil servants in the Kurdish region.

The Kurdish population welcomed the American troops in by holding celebrations and dancing in the streets. The authority of the KRG and legality of its laws and regulations were recognized in the articles and of the new Iraqi Constitution ratified in On 14 August , Yazidis were targeted in a series of bombings that became the deadliest suicide attack since the Iraq War began, killing civilians, wounding 1, They are mostly concentrated in the northeast and the north, but there are also significant Kurdish populations in Aleppo and Damascus.

Kurds often speak Kurdish in public, unless all those present do not. According to Amnesty International , Kurdish human rights activists are mistreated and persecuted.

Techniques used to suppress the ethnic identity of Kurds in Syria include various bans on the use of the Kurdish language , refusal to register children with Kurdish names, the replacement of Kurdish place names with new names in Arabic , the prohibition of businesses that do not have Arabic names, the prohibition of Kurdish private schools, and the prohibition of books and other materials written in Kurdish.

In March , in part to avoid further demonstrations and unrest from spreading across Syria, the Syrian government promised to tackle the issue and grant Syrian citizenship to approximately , Kurds who had been previously denied the right.

On 12 March , beginning at a stadium in Qamishli a largely Kurdish city in northeastern Syria , clashes between Kurds and Syrians broke out and continued over a number of days.

At least thirty people were killed and more than injured. The unrest spread to other Kurdish towns along the northern border with Turkey, and then to Damascus and Aleppo.

As a result of Syrian civil war , since July , Kurds were able to take control of large parts of Syrian Kurdistan from Andiwar in extreme northeast to Jindires in extreme northwest Syria.

The Syrian Kurds started the Rojava Revolution in Between , and , people were displaced due to the Turkish intervention. In October , Turkey and the Syrian Interim Government began an offensive into Kurdish-populated areas in Syria, prompting about , civilians to flee from the area fearing that Turkey would commit an ethnic cleansing.

Between the s and s, Armenia was a part of the Soviet Union , within which Kurds, like other ethnic groups, had the status of a protected minority.

Armenian Kurds were permitted their own state-sponsored newspaper, radio broadcasts and cultural events. During the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh , many non-Yazidi Kurds were forced to leave their homes since both the Azeri and non-Yazidi Kurds were Muslim.

The period of existence of the Kurdish administrative unit was brief and did not last beyond Kurds subsequently faced many repressive measures, including deportations, imposed by the Soviet government.

As a result of the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh , many Kurdish areas have been destroyed and more than , Kurds have been deported since by separatist Armenian forces.

According to a report by the Council of Europe , approximately 1. Successive periods of political and social turmoil in the region during the s and s brought new waves of Kurdish refugees, mostly from Iran and Iraq under Saddam Hussein, came to Europe.

Since the beginning of the turmoil in Syria many of the refugees of the Syrian Civil War are Syrian Kurds and as a result many of the current Syrian asylum seekers in Germany are of Kurdish descent.

There was substantial immigration of ethnic Kurds in Canada and the United States , who are mainly political refugees and immigrants seeking economic opportunity.

According to a Statistics Canada household survey, there were 11, people of Kurdish ethnic background living in Canada , [] and according to the Census, 10, Canadians spoke Kurdish languages.

As a whole, the Kurdish people are adherents to various religions and creeds, perhaps constituting the most religiously diverse people of West Asia. Traditionally, Kurds have been known to take great liberties with their practices.

This sentiment is reflected in the saying "Compared to the unbeliever, the Kurd is a Muslim". Today, the majority of Kurds are Sunni Muslim , belonging to the Shafi school.

The Kurdish following of the Shafi legal code has caused some tension when pushed up against Sunni Turks and Sunni Arabs who subscribe to the Hanafi legal code.

There is also a significant minority of Kurds who are Shia Muslims. Mystical practices and participation in Sufi orders are also widespread among Kurds, [] with prominent Kurdish Sufi saints including Piryones.

Among the Qizilbash , the militant groups which predate the Alevis and helped establish the Safavid Dynasty , there were numerous Kurdish tribes.

The American missionary Stephen van Renssalaer Trowbridge, working at Aintab present Gaziantep reported [] that his Alevi acquaintances considered as their highest spiritual leaders an Ahl-i Haqq sayyid family in the Guran district.

Ahl-i Haqq or Yarsanism is a syncretic religion founded by Sultan Sahak in the late 14th century in western Iran. Most of its adherents, estimated at around , [] or 1 million, [] are found primarily in western Iran and eastern Iraq and are mostly ethnic Goran Kurds , [] [] [] though there are also smaller groups of Persian , Lori , Azeri and Arab adherents.

In this text, the religion's basic pillars are summarized as: "The Yarsan should strive for these four qualities: purity, rectitude, self-effacement and self-abnegation".

The Yarsan faith's unique features include millenarism , nativism , egalitarianism , metempsychosis , angelology , divine manifestation and dualism.

Many of these features are found in Yazidism , another Kurdish faith, in the faith of Zoroastrians and in ghulat non-mainstream Shia groups; certainly, the names and religious terminology of the Yarsan are often explicitly of Muslim origin.

Unlike other indigenous Persianate faiths, the Yarsan explicitly reject class, caste and rank, which sets them apart from the Yazidis and Zoroastrians.

The Ahl-i Haqq consider the Bektashi and Alevi as kindred communities. Yazidism is another syncretic religion practiced among Kurdish communities, founded by Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir , a 12th-century mystic from Lebanon.

Their numbers exceed ,, with some estimates numbering them at 1. According to Yazidi beliefs, God created the world but left it in the care of seven holy beings or angels.

Yazidis believe in the periodic reincarnation of the seven holy beings in human form. Yazidis who marry non-Yazidis are automatically considered to be converted to the religion of their spouse and therefore are not permitted to call themselves Yazidis.

They live primarily in Iraq's Nineveh Governorate. Their holiest shrine and the tomb of the faith's founder is located in Lalish , in northern Iraq.

The Iranian religion of Zoroastrianism has had a major influence on the Iranian culture, which Kurds are a part of, and has maintained some effect since the demise of the religion in the Middle Ages.

The Iranian philosopher Sohrevardi drew heavily from Zoroastrian teachings. Leading characteristics, such as messianism , the Golden Rule , heaven and hell , and free will influenced other religious systems, including Second Temple Judaism , Gnosticism , Christianity , and Islam.

In , the first official Zoroastrian fire temple of Iraqi Kurdistan opened in Sulaymaniyah. Attendees celebrated the occasion by lighting a ritual fire and beating the frame drum or 'daf'.

Although historically there have been various accounts of Kurdish Christians , most often these were in the form of individuals, and not as communities.

However, in the 19th and 20th century various travel logs tell of Kurdish Christian tribes, as well as Kurdish Muslim tribes who had substantial Christian populations living amongst them.

A significant number of these were allegedly originally Armenian or Assyrian , [] and it has been recorded that a small number of Christian traditions have been preserved.

Several Christian prayers in Kurdish have been found from earlier centuries. Segments of the Bible were first made available in the Kurdish language in in the Kurmanji dialect.

Kurdish culture is a legacy from the various ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society. As most other Middle Eastern populations, a high degree of mutual influences between the Kurds and their neighbouring peoples are apparent.

Therefore, in Kurdish culture elements of various other cultures are to be seen. However, on the whole, Kurdish culture is closest to that of other Iranian peoples , in particular those who historically had the closest geographical proximity to the Kurds, such as the Persians and Lurs.

A madrasa system was used before the modern era. In general, Kurdish women's rights and equality have improved in the 20th and 21st centuries due to progressive movements within Kurdish society.

However, despite the progress, Kurdish and international women's rights organizations still report problems related to gender equality , forced marriages , honor killings and in Iraqi Kurdistan also female genital mutilation FGM.

The Kurds possess a rich tradition of folklore, which, until recent times, was largely transmitted by speech or song, from one generation to the next.

Although some of the Kurdish writers' stories were well known throughout Kurdistan; most of the stories told and sung were only written down in the 20th and 21st centuries.

Many of these are, allegedly, centuries old. Widely varying in purpose and style, among the Kurdish folklore one will find stories about nature, anthropomorphic animals, love, heroes and villains, mythological creatures and everyday life.

A number of these mythological figures can be found in other cultures, like the Simurgh and Kaveh the Blacksmith in the broader Iranian Mythology , and stories of Shahmaran throughout Anatolia.

Additionally, stories can be purely entertaining, or have an educational or religious aspect. Perhaps the most widely reoccurring element is the fox, which, through cunning and shrewdness triumphs over less intelligent species, yet often also meets his demise.

Storytellers would perform in front of an audience, sometimes consisting of an entire village. People from outside the region would travel to attend their narratives, and the storytellers themselves would visit other villages to spread their tales.

These would thrive especially during winter, where entertainment was hard to find as evenings had to be spent inside.

Coinciding with the heterogeneous Kurdish groupings, although certain stories and elements were commonly found throughout Kurdistan, others were unique to a specific area; depending on the region, religion or dialect.

The Kurdish Jews of Zakho are perhaps the best example of this; their gifted storytellers are known to have been greatly respected throughout the region, thanks to a unique oral tradition.

In , the language was decriminalized, yet the now highly available radios and TV's had as an effect a diminished interest in traditional storytelling.

Kurdish weaving is renowned throughout the world, with fine specimens of both rugs and bags. The most famous Kurdish rugs are those from the Bijar region , in the Kurdistan Province.

Because of the unique way in which the Bijar rugs are woven, they are very stout and durable, hence their appellation as the 'Iron Rugs of Persia'.

Exhibiting a wide variety, the Bijar rugs have patterns ranging from floral designs, medallions and animals to other ornaments.

They generally have two wefts , and are very colorful in design. Another well-known Kurdish rug is the Senneh rug, which is regarded as the most sophisticated of the Kurdish rugs.

They are especially known for their great knot density and high-quality mountain wool. Throughout other Kurdish regions like Kermanshah , Siirt , Malatya and Bitlis rugs were also woven to great extent.

Kurdish bags are mainly known from the works of one large tribe: the Jaffs , living in the border area between Iran and Iraq.

These Jaff bags share the same characteristics of Kurdish rugs; very colorful, stout in design, often with medallion patterns. They were especially popular in the West during the s and s.

Outside of weaving and clothing, there are many other Kurdish handicrafts , which were traditionally often crafted by nomadic Kurdish tribes.

These are especially well known in Iran, most notably the crafts from the Kermanshah and Sanandaj regions. Among these crafts are chess boards, talismans, jewelry, ornaments, weaponry, instruments etc.

Kurdish blades include a distinct jambiya , with its characteristic I-shaped hilt, and oblong blade. Generally, these possess double-edged blades, reinforced with a central ridge, a wooden, leather or silver decorated scabbard, and a horn hilt, furthermore they are often still worn decoratively by older men.

Swords were made as well. Most of these blades in circulation stem from the 19th century. Another distinct form of art from Sanandaj is 'Oroosi', a type of window where stylized wooden pieces are locked into each other, rather than being glued together.

These are further decorated with coloured glass, this stems from an old belief that if light passes through a combination of seven colours it helps keep the atmosphere clean.

Among Kurdish Jews a common practice was the making of talismans, which were believed to combat illnesses and protect the wearer from malevolent spirits.

Adorning the body with tattoos deq in Kurdish is widespread among the Kurds; even though permanent tattoos are not permissible in Sunni Islam.

Therefore, these traditional tattoos are thought to derive from pre-Islamic times. Tattoo ink is made by mixing soot with breast milk and the poisonous liquid from the gall bladder of an animal.

The design is drawn on the skin using a thin twig and is, by needle, penetrated under the skin. These have a wide variety of meanings and purposes, among which are protection against evil or illnesses; beauty enhancement; and the showing of tribal affiliations.

Religious symbolism is also common among both traditional and modern Kurdish tattoos. Tattoos are more prevalent among women than among men, and were generally worn on feet, the chin, foreheads and other places of the body.

The popularity of permanent, traditional tattoos has greatly diminished among newer generation of Kurds. However, modern tattoos are becoming more prevalent; and temporary tattoos are still being worn on special occasions such as henna , the night before a wedding and as tribute to the cultural heritage.

No specific music was associated with the Kurdish princely courts. Several musical forms are found in this genre. Many songs are epic in nature, such as the popular Lawiks , heroic ballads recounting the tales of Kurdish heroes such as Saladin.

Heyrans are love ballads usually expressing the melancholy of separation and unfulfilled love, one of the first Kurdish female singers to sing heyrans is Chopy Fatah , while Lawje is a form of religious music and Payizoks are songs performed during the autumn.

Throughout the Middle East, there are many prominent Kurdish artists. The main themes of Kurdish Cinema are the poverty and hardship which ordinary Kurds have to endure.

The first films featuring Kurdish culture were actually shot in Armenia. Zare, released in , produced by Hamo Beknazarian , details the story of Zare and her love for the shepherd Seydo, and the difficulties the two experience by the hand of the village elder.

These were joint Armenian-Kurdish productions; with H. Jamharyan for Kurds of Armenia. Sürü , Yol and Duvar are his best-known works, of which the second won Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival of , [] the most prestigious award in the world of cinema.

Another prominent Kurdish film director is Bahman Qubadi. His first feature film was A Time for Drunken Horses , released in It was critically acclaimed, and went on to win multiple awards.

Other movies of his would follow this example, [] making him one of the best known film producers of Iran of today. The most popular sport among the Kurds is football.

They became runners-up in and , before ultimately becoming champion in On a national level, the Kurdish clubs of Iraq have achieved success in recent years as well, winning the Iraqi Premier League four times in the last five years.

The most prominent Kurdish-Turkish club is Diyarbakirspor. Another prominent sport is wrestling. In Iranian Wrestling , there are three styles originating from Kurdish regions:.

Furthermore, the most accredited of the traditional Iranian wrestling styles, the Bachoukheh, derives its name from a local Khorasani Kurdish costume in which it is practised.

Kurdish medalists in the Summer Olympics were Nur Tatar , [] Kianoush Rostami and Yezidi Misha Aloyan ; [] who won medals in taekwondo , weightlifting and boxing , respectively.

The traditional Kurdish village has simple houses, made of mud. In most cases with flat, wooden roofs, and, if the village is built on the slope of a mountain, the roof on one house makes for the garden of the house one level higher.

However, houses with a beehive-like roof, not unlike those in Harran , are also present. Over the centuries many Kurdish architectural marvels have been erected, with varying styles.

The first genuinely Kurdish examples extant were built in the 11th century. In the 12th and 13th centuries the Ayyubid dynasty constructed many buildings throughout the Middle East, being influenced by their predecessors, the Fatimids, and their rivals, the Crusaders, whilst also developing their own techniques.

In later periods too, Kurdish rulers and their corresponding dynasties and emirates would leave their mark upon the land in the form mosques, castles and bridges, some of which have decayed, or have been partly destroyed in an attempt to erase the Kurdish cultural heritage, such as the White Castle of the Bohtan Emirate.

Well-known examples are Hosap Castle of the 17th century, [] Sherwana Castle of the early 18th century, and the Ellwen Bridge of Khanaqin of the 19th century.

Most famous is the Ishak Pasha Palace of Dogubeyazit, a structure with heavy influences from both Anatolian and Iranian architectural traditions.

Construction of the Palace began in , led by Colak Abdi Pasha, a Kurdish bey of the Ottoman Empire, but the building would not be completed until , by his grandson, Ishak Pasha.

In recent years, the KRG has been responsible for the renovation of several historical structures, such as Erbil Citadel and the Mudhafaria Minaret.

Kurdish warriors by Amadeo Preziosi. Zakho Kurds by Albert Kahn , s. A Kurdish woman and a child from Bisaran , Eastern Kurdistan , A group of Kurdish men with traditional clothing, Hawraman.

A Kurdish woman fighter from Rojava. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Kurd disambiguation.

Iranian ethnic group. Part of a series on: Kurdish history and Kurdish culture. List of Kurds. History of the Kurds. Ancient history. Medieval history.

Modern history. Main article: Kurdish languages. Main article: Kurdish population. Main article: History of the Kurdish people.

Main article: Origin of the Kurds. Further information: Safavid dynasty. Further information: Zand dynasty.

Further information: Ottoman Empire and Sheik Ubeydullah. Main article: Name of the Kurds. Further information: Kurdistan and Kurdish refugees.

Main articles: Kurds in Syria and Rojava. See also: Kurdish-Armenian relations and Kurds in Azerbaijan. Main articles: Islam , Shafi , and Shia.

Main article: Alevism. Main article: Yarsanism. Main article: Zoroastrianism. Main articles: Kurdish culture and Kurdish literature.

Main article: Kurdish women. Main article: Kurdish music. Main article: Kurdish cinema. Armenian, Turkish and Kurdish females in their traditional clothes, A Kurdish woman from Kirkuk , A Kurdish man wearing traditional clothes, Erbil.

Retrieved 2 August A rough estimate in this edition gives populations of The Kurdish population is estimated at 15—20 million in Turkey, 10—12 million in Iran, 8—8.

Retrieved 18 May Kurdisches Kulturfestival verboten". Retrieved 9 June Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 14 January Archived from the original on 21 May Retrieved 4 July Institut Kurde de Paris.

Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 3 August Retrieved 4 September Scotland Census. Retrieved 29 September Retrieved 24 August Statistics of Armenia in Armenian.

Retrieved 27 May Jyllandsposten in Danish. Retrieved 24 December Retrieved 10 November Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 29 March United Nations.

Archived from the original PDF on 10 July Retrieved 9 July Retrieved 3 February Statistics Finland. Retrieved 27 April Languages of Iran.

Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 29 May The Kurds: A Concise Handbook. Encyclopedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online. The Kurds, an Iranian people of the Near East, live at the junction of A Brief Survey of the History of the Kurds.

Kurdish Institute of Paris. University of Texas Press. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed. Retrieved 29 December Iranian Languages. Retrieved 2 December Writes about the problem of attaining a coherent definition of "Kurdish language" within the Northwestern Iranian dialect continuum.

There is no unambiguous evolution of Kurdish from Middle Iranian, as "from Old and Middle Iranian times, no predecessors of the Kurdish language are yet known; the extant Kurdish texts may be traced back to no earlier than the 16th century CE.

To attain a fuller understanding of the difficulties and questions that are raised by the issue of the 'Kurdish language,' it is therefore necessary to consider also non-linguistic factors.

Excerpt: "This view was criticised by the linguist D. MacKenzie, according to whom there are but few linguistic features that all Kurdish dialects have in common and that are not at the same time found in other Iranian languages.

However, for the time being the commonly accepted classification of the Kurdish dialects is that of the late Prof. Mackenzie, the author of fundamental works in Kurdish dialectology see Mackenzie ; idem —; idem a; idem , who distinguished three groups of dialects: Northern, Central, and Southern.

Retrieved 11 August Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 June Philip Kreyenbroek and Stefan Sperl p. The Reckoning: Iraq and the Legacy of Saddam.

Norton and Co. However, this State Dept. Concordia University. This is becoming the part of modern communications. Since the first introduced to the world, chat room has helped to connect thousands of people across the country live.

Unlike the other social media, in these rooms, people will interact live. It means your messages will be responded by people from various part of the world whom has joined in the room right away.

You can share stories, fool around, joke, or even debating in public rooms, and if you like to make personal chat with certain someone, you could also create private chat rooms.

Online chat which provides its users maximum functionality to simplify the search for contacts and discussion in real time through our site , allows you to find your soul mate and build relationships quickly with single women and men.

The offers the possibility to interrupt a discussion group at any time to start a private conversation.

Kurdish chat

During the late s and early s, tribal revolt led by Kurdish chieftain Simko Shikak struck north western Iran. Although elements of Kurdish nationalism were present in this movement, historians agree these were hardly articulate enough to justify a claim that recognition of Kurdish identity was a major issue in Simko's movement, and he had to rely heavily on conventional tribal motives.

Reza Shah 's military victory over Kurdish and Turkic tribal leaders initiated a repressive era toward non- Iranian minorities. As a response to growing Pan-Turkism and Pan-Arabism in region which were seen as potential threats to the territorial integrity of Iran, Pan-Iranist ideology has been developed in the early s.

It culminated in the Iran crisis of which included a separatist attempt of KDP-I and communist groups [] to establish the Soviet puppet government [] [] [] called Republic of Mahabad.

It arose along with Azerbaijan People's Government , another Soviet puppet state. Several nationalist and Marxist insurgencies continued for decades , , —96 led by KDP-I and Komalah , but those two organization have never advocated a separate Kurdish state or greater Kurdistan as did the PKK in Turkey.

Kurdish Marxist groups have been marginalized in Iran since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Kurds have been well integrated in Iranian political life during reign of various governments.

Kurdish language is today used more than at any other time since the Revolution , including in several newspapers and among schoolchildren. They are the majority in at least three provinces in northern Iraq which are together known as Iraqi Kurdistan.

Kurds also have a presence in Kirkuk , Mosul , Khanaqin , and Baghdad. Around , Kurds live in the Iraqi capital Baghdad , 50, in the city of Mosul and around , elsewhere in southern Iraq.

Kurds led by Mustafa Barzani were engaged in heavy fighting against successive Iraqi regimes from to In March , Iraq announced a peace plan providing for Kurdish autonomy.

The plan was to be implemented in four years. Iraq started another wave of Arabization by moving Arabs to the oil fields in Kurdistan, particularly those around Kirkuk.

During the Iran—Iraq War in the s, the regime implemented anti-Kurdish policies and a de facto civil war broke out. Iraq was widely condemned by the international community, but was never seriously punished for oppressive measures such as the mass murder of hundreds of thousands of civilians, the wholesale destruction of thousands of villages and the deportation of thousands of Kurds to southern and central Iraq.

The genocidal campaign, conducted between and and culminating in , carried out by the Iraqi government against the Kurdish population was called Anfal "Spoils of War".

The Anfal campaign led to destruction of over two thousand villages and killing of , Kurdish civilians. After the collapse of the Kurdish uprising in March , Iraqi troops recaptured most of the Kurdish areas and 1.

It is estimated that close to 20, Kurds succumbed to death due to exhaustion, lack of food, exposure to cold and disease. On 5 April , UN Security Council passed resolution which condemned the repression of Iraqi Kurdish civilians and demanded that Iraq end its repressive measures and allow immediate access to international humanitarian organizations.

In mid-April, the Coalition established safe havens inside Iraqi borders and prohibited Iraqi planes from flying north of 36th parallel.

In late October, Iraqi government retaliated by imposing a food and fuel embargo on the Kurds and stopping to pay civil servants in the Kurdish region.

The Kurdish population welcomed the American troops in by holding celebrations and dancing in the streets. The authority of the KRG and legality of its laws and regulations were recognized in the articles and of the new Iraqi Constitution ratified in On 14 August , Yazidis were targeted in a series of bombings that became the deadliest suicide attack since the Iraq War began, killing civilians, wounding 1, They are mostly concentrated in the northeast and the north, but there are also significant Kurdish populations in Aleppo and Damascus.

Kurds often speak Kurdish in public, unless all those present do not. According to Amnesty International , Kurdish human rights activists are mistreated and persecuted.

Techniques used to suppress the ethnic identity of Kurds in Syria include various bans on the use of the Kurdish language , refusal to register children with Kurdish names, the replacement of Kurdish place names with new names in Arabic , the prohibition of businesses that do not have Arabic names, the prohibition of Kurdish private schools, and the prohibition of books and other materials written in Kurdish.

In March , in part to avoid further demonstrations and unrest from spreading across Syria, the Syrian government promised to tackle the issue and grant Syrian citizenship to approximately , Kurds who had been previously denied the right.

On 12 March , beginning at a stadium in Qamishli a largely Kurdish city in northeastern Syria , clashes between Kurds and Syrians broke out and continued over a number of days.

At least thirty people were killed and more than injured. The unrest spread to other Kurdish towns along the northern border with Turkey, and then to Damascus and Aleppo.

As a result of Syrian civil war , since July , Kurds were able to take control of large parts of Syrian Kurdistan from Andiwar in extreme northeast to Jindires in extreme northwest Syria.

The Syrian Kurds started the Rojava Revolution in Between , and , people were displaced due to the Turkish intervention. In October , Turkey and the Syrian Interim Government began an offensive into Kurdish-populated areas in Syria, prompting about , civilians to flee from the area fearing that Turkey would commit an ethnic cleansing.

Between the s and s, Armenia was a part of the Soviet Union , within which Kurds, like other ethnic groups, had the status of a protected minority.

Armenian Kurds were permitted their own state-sponsored newspaper, radio broadcasts and cultural events. During the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh , many non-Yazidi Kurds were forced to leave their homes since both the Azeri and non-Yazidi Kurds were Muslim.

The period of existence of the Kurdish administrative unit was brief and did not last beyond Kurds subsequently faced many repressive measures, including deportations, imposed by the Soviet government.

As a result of the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh , many Kurdish areas have been destroyed and more than , Kurds have been deported since by separatist Armenian forces.

According to a report by the Council of Europe , approximately 1. Successive periods of political and social turmoil in the region during the s and s brought new waves of Kurdish refugees, mostly from Iran and Iraq under Saddam Hussein, came to Europe.

Since the beginning of the turmoil in Syria many of the refugees of the Syrian Civil War are Syrian Kurds and as a result many of the current Syrian asylum seekers in Germany are of Kurdish descent.

There was substantial immigration of ethnic Kurds in Canada and the United States , who are mainly political refugees and immigrants seeking economic opportunity.

According to a Statistics Canada household survey, there were 11, people of Kurdish ethnic background living in Canada , [] and according to the Census, 10, Canadians spoke Kurdish languages.

As a whole, the Kurdish people are adherents to various religions and creeds, perhaps constituting the most religiously diverse people of West Asia.

Traditionally, Kurds have been known to take great liberties with their practices. This sentiment is reflected in the saying "Compared to the unbeliever, the Kurd is a Muslim".

Today, the majority of Kurds are Sunni Muslim , belonging to the Shafi school. The Kurdish following of the Shafi legal code has caused some tension when pushed up against Sunni Turks and Sunni Arabs who subscribe to the Hanafi legal code.

There is also a significant minority of Kurds who are Shia Muslims. Mystical practices and participation in Sufi orders are also widespread among Kurds, [] with prominent Kurdish Sufi saints including Piryones.

Among the Qizilbash , the militant groups which predate the Alevis and helped establish the Safavid Dynasty , there were numerous Kurdish tribes.

The American missionary Stephen van Renssalaer Trowbridge, working at Aintab present Gaziantep reported [] that his Alevi acquaintances considered as their highest spiritual leaders an Ahl-i Haqq sayyid family in the Guran district.

Ahl-i Haqq or Yarsanism is a syncretic religion founded by Sultan Sahak in the late 14th century in western Iran. Most of its adherents, estimated at around , [] or 1 million, [] are found primarily in western Iran and eastern Iraq and are mostly ethnic Goran Kurds , [] [] [] though there are also smaller groups of Persian , Lori , Azeri and Arab adherents.

In this text, the religion's basic pillars are summarized as: "The Yarsan should strive for these four qualities: purity, rectitude, self-effacement and self-abnegation".

The Yarsan faith's unique features include millenarism , nativism , egalitarianism , metempsychosis , angelology , divine manifestation and dualism.

Many of these features are found in Yazidism , another Kurdish faith, in the faith of Zoroastrians and in ghulat non-mainstream Shia groups; certainly, the names and religious terminology of the Yarsan are often explicitly of Muslim origin.

Unlike other indigenous Persianate faiths, the Yarsan explicitly reject class, caste and rank, which sets them apart from the Yazidis and Zoroastrians.

The Ahl-i Haqq consider the Bektashi and Alevi as kindred communities. Yazidism is another syncretic religion practiced among Kurdish communities, founded by Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir , a 12th-century mystic from Lebanon.

Their numbers exceed ,, with some estimates numbering them at 1. According to Yazidi beliefs, God created the world but left it in the care of seven holy beings or angels.

Yazidis believe in the periodic reincarnation of the seven holy beings in human form. Yazidis who marry non-Yazidis are automatically considered to be converted to the religion of their spouse and therefore are not permitted to call themselves Yazidis.

They live primarily in Iraq's Nineveh Governorate. Their holiest shrine and the tomb of the faith's founder is located in Lalish , in northern Iraq.

The Iranian religion of Zoroastrianism has had a major influence on the Iranian culture, which Kurds are a part of, and has maintained some effect since the demise of the religion in the Middle Ages.

The Iranian philosopher Sohrevardi drew heavily from Zoroastrian teachings. Leading characteristics, such as messianism , the Golden Rule , heaven and hell , and free will influenced other religious systems, including Second Temple Judaism , Gnosticism , Christianity , and Islam.

In , the first official Zoroastrian fire temple of Iraqi Kurdistan opened in Sulaymaniyah. Attendees celebrated the occasion by lighting a ritual fire and beating the frame drum or 'daf'.

Although historically there have been various accounts of Kurdish Christians , most often these were in the form of individuals, and not as communities.

However, in the 19th and 20th century various travel logs tell of Kurdish Christian tribes, as well as Kurdish Muslim tribes who had substantial Christian populations living amongst them.

A significant number of these were allegedly originally Armenian or Assyrian , [] and it has been recorded that a small number of Christian traditions have been preserved.

Several Christian prayers in Kurdish have been found from earlier centuries. Segments of the Bible were first made available in the Kurdish language in in the Kurmanji dialect.

Kurdish culture is a legacy from the various ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society. As most other Middle Eastern populations, a high degree of mutual influences between the Kurds and their neighbouring peoples are apparent.

Therefore, in Kurdish culture elements of various other cultures are to be seen. However, on the whole, Kurdish culture is closest to that of other Iranian peoples , in particular those who historically had the closest geographical proximity to the Kurds, such as the Persians and Lurs.

A madrasa system was used before the modern era. In general, Kurdish women's rights and equality have improved in the 20th and 21st centuries due to progressive movements within Kurdish society.

However, despite the progress, Kurdish and international women's rights organizations still report problems related to gender equality , forced marriages , honor killings and in Iraqi Kurdistan also female genital mutilation FGM.

The Kurds possess a rich tradition of folklore, which, until recent times, was largely transmitted by speech or song, from one generation to the next.

Although some of the Kurdish writers' stories were well known throughout Kurdistan; most of the stories told and sung were only written down in the 20th and 21st centuries.

Many of these are, allegedly, centuries old. Widely varying in purpose and style, among the Kurdish folklore one will find stories about nature, anthropomorphic animals, love, heroes and villains, mythological creatures and everyday life.

A number of these mythological figures can be found in other cultures, like the Simurgh and Kaveh the Blacksmith in the broader Iranian Mythology , and stories of Shahmaran throughout Anatolia.

Additionally, stories can be purely entertaining, or have an educational or religious aspect. Perhaps the most widely reoccurring element is the fox, which, through cunning and shrewdness triumphs over less intelligent species, yet often also meets his demise.

Storytellers would perform in front of an audience, sometimes consisting of an entire village. People from outside the region would travel to attend their narratives, and the storytellers themselves would visit other villages to spread their tales.

These would thrive especially during winter, where entertainment was hard to find as evenings had to be spent inside.

Coinciding with the heterogeneous Kurdish groupings, although certain stories and elements were commonly found throughout Kurdistan, others were unique to a specific area; depending on the region, religion or dialect.

The Kurdish Jews of Zakho are perhaps the best example of this; their gifted storytellers are known to have been greatly respected throughout the region, thanks to a unique oral tradition.

In , the language was decriminalized, yet the now highly available radios and TV's had as an effect a diminished interest in traditional storytelling.

Kurdish weaving is renowned throughout the world, with fine specimens of both rugs and bags. The most famous Kurdish rugs are those from the Bijar region , in the Kurdistan Province.

Because of the unique way in which the Bijar rugs are woven, they are very stout and durable, hence their appellation as the 'Iron Rugs of Persia'.

Exhibiting a wide variety, the Bijar rugs have patterns ranging from floral designs, medallions and animals to other ornaments.

They generally have two wefts , and are very colorful in design. Another well-known Kurdish rug is the Senneh rug, which is regarded as the most sophisticated of the Kurdish rugs.

They are especially known for their great knot density and high-quality mountain wool. Throughout other Kurdish regions like Kermanshah , Siirt , Malatya and Bitlis rugs were also woven to great extent.

Kurdish bags are mainly known from the works of one large tribe: the Jaffs , living in the border area between Iran and Iraq. These Jaff bags share the same characteristics of Kurdish rugs; very colorful, stout in design, often with medallion patterns.

They were especially popular in the West during the s and s. Outside of weaving and clothing, there are many other Kurdish handicrafts , which were traditionally often crafted by nomadic Kurdish tribes.

These are especially well known in Iran, most notably the crafts from the Kermanshah and Sanandaj regions. Among these crafts are chess boards, talismans, jewelry, ornaments, weaponry, instruments etc.

Kurdish blades include a distinct jambiya , with its characteristic I-shaped hilt, and oblong blade. Generally, these possess double-edged blades, reinforced with a central ridge, a wooden, leather or silver decorated scabbard, and a horn hilt, furthermore they are often still worn decoratively by older men.

Swords were made as well. Most of these blades in circulation stem from the 19th century. Another distinct form of art from Sanandaj is 'Oroosi', a type of window where stylized wooden pieces are locked into each other, rather than being glued together.

These are further decorated with coloured glass, this stems from an old belief that if light passes through a combination of seven colours it helps keep the atmosphere clean.

Among Kurdish Jews a common practice was the making of talismans, which were believed to combat illnesses and protect the wearer from malevolent spirits.

Adorning the body with tattoos deq in Kurdish is widespread among the Kurds; even though permanent tattoos are not permissible in Sunni Islam. Therefore, these traditional tattoos are thought to derive from pre-Islamic times.

Tattoo ink is made by mixing soot with breast milk and the poisonous liquid from the gall bladder of an animal. The design is drawn on the skin using a thin twig and is, by needle, penetrated under the skin.

These have a wide variety of meanings and purposes, among which are protection against evil or illnesses; beauty enhancement; and the showing of tribal affiliations.

Religious symbolism is also common among both traditional and modern Kurdish tattoos. Tattoos are more prevalent among women than among men, and were generally worn on feet, the chin, foreheads and other places of the body.

The popularity of permanent, traditional tattoos has greatly diminished among newer generation of Kurds. However, modern tattoos are becoming more prevalent; and temporary tattoos are still being worn on special occasions such as henna , the night before a wedding and as tribute to the cultural heritage.

No specific music was associated with the Kurdish princely courts. Several musical forms are found in this genre. Many songs are epic in nature, such as the popular Lawiks , heroic ballads recounting the tales of Kurdish heroes such as Saladin.

Heyrans are love ballads usually expressing the melancholy of separation and unfulfilled love, one of the first Kurdish female singers to sing heyrans is Chopy Fatah , while Lawje is a form of religious music and Payizoks are songs performed during the autumn.

Throughout the Middle East, there are many prominent Kurdish artists. The main themes of Kurdish Cinema are the poverty and hardship which ordinary Kurds have to endure.

The first films featuring Kurdish culture were actually shot in Armenia. Zare, released in , produced by Hamo Beknazarian , details the story of Zare and her love for the shepherd Seydo, and the difficulties the two experience by the hand of the village elder.

These were joint Armenian-Kurdish productions; with H. Jamharyan for Kurds of Armenia. Sürü , Yol and Duvar are his best-known works, of which the second won Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival of , [] the most prestigious award in the world of cinema.

Another prominent Kurdish film director is Bahman Qubadi. His first feature film was A Time for Drunken Horses , released in It was critically acclaimed, and went on to win multiple awards.

Other movies of his would follow this example, [] making him one of the best known film producers of Iran of today.

The most popular sport among the Kurds is football. They became runners-up in and , before ultimately becoming champion in On a national level, the Kurdish clubs of Iraq have achieved success in recent years as well, winning the Iraqi Premier League four times in the last five years.

The most prominent Kurdish-Turkish club is Diyarbakirspor. Another prominent sport is wrestling. In Iranian Wrestling , there are three styles originating from Kurdish regions:.

Furthermore, the most accredited of the traditional Iranian wrestling styles, the Bachoukheh, derives its name from a local Khorasani Kurdish costume in which it is practised.

Kurdish medalists in the Summer Olympics were Nur Tatar , [] Kianoush Rostami and Yezidi Misha Aloyan ; [] who won medals in taekwondo , weightlifting and boxing , respectively.

The traditional Kurdish village has simple houses, made of mud. In most cases with flat, wooden roofs, and, if the village is built on the slope of a mountain, the roof on one house makes for the garden of the house one level higher.

However, houses with a beehive-like roof, not unlike those in Harran , are also present. Over the centuries many Kurdish architectural marvels have been erected, with varying styles.

The first genuinely Kurdish examples extant were built in the 11th century. In the 12th and 13th centuries the Ayyubid dynasty constructed many buildings throughout the Middle East, being influenced by their predecessors, the Fatimids, and their rivals, the Crusaders, whilst also developing their own techniques.

In later periods too, Kurdish rulers and their corresponding dynasties and emirates would leave their mark upon the land in the form mosques, castles and bridges, some of which have decayed, or have been partly destroyed in an attempt to erase the Kurdish cultural heritage, such as the White Castle of the Bohtan Emirate.

Well-known examples are Hosap Castle of the 17th century, [] Sherwana Castle of the early 18th century, and the Ellwen Bridge of Khanaqin of the 19th century.

Most famous is the Ishak Pasha Palace of Dogubeyazit, a structure with heavy influences from both Anatolian and Iranian architectural traditions.

Construction of the Palace began in , led by Colak Abdi Pasha, a Kurdish bey of the Ottoman Empire, but the building would not be completed until , by his grandson, Ishak Pasha.

In recent years, the KRG has been responsible for the renovation of several historical structures, such as Erbil Citadel and the Mudhafaria Minaret.

Kurdish warriors by Amadeo Preziosi. Zakho Kurds by Albert Kahn , s. A Kurdish woman and a child from Bisaran , Eastern Kurdistan , A group of Kurdish men with traditional clothing, Hawraman.

A Kurdish woman fighter from Rojava. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Kurd disambiguation.

Iranian ethnic group. Part of a series on: Kurdish history and Kurdish culture. List of Kurds. History of the Kurds. Ancient history.

Medieval history. Modern history. Main article: Kurdish languages. Main article: Kurdish population. Main article: History of the Kurdish people.

Main article: Origin of the Kurds. Further information: Safavid dynasty. Further information: Zand dynasty. Further information: Ottoman Empire and Sheik Ubeydullah.

Main article: Name of the Kurds. Further information: Kurdistan and Kurdish refugees. Main articles: Kurds in Syria and Rojava. See also: Kurdish-Armenian relations and Kurds in Azerbaijan.

Main articles: Islam , Shafi , and Shia. Main article: Alevism. Main article: Yarsanism. Main article: Zoroastrianism.

Main articles: Kurdish culture and Kurdish literature. Main article: Kurdish women. Main article: Kurdish music. Main article: Kurdish cinema.

Armenian, Turkish and Kurdish females in their traditional clothes, A Kurdish woman from Kirkuk , A Kurdish man wearing traditional clothes, Erbil.

Retrieved 2 August A rough estimate in this edition gives populations of The Kurdish population is estimated at 15—20 million in Turkey, 10—12 million in Iran, 8—8.

Retrieved 18 May Kurdisches Kulturfestival verboten". Retrieved 9 June Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 14 January Archived from the original on 21 May Retrieved 4 July Institut Kurde de Paris.

Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 3 August Retrieved 4 September Scotland Census. Retrieved 29 September Retrieved 24 August Statistics of Armenia in Armenian.

Retrieved 27 May Jyllandsposten in Danish. Retrieved 24 December Retrieved 10 November Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 29 March United Nations.

Archived from the original PDF on 10 July Retrieved 9 July Retrieved 3 February Statistics Finland.

Retrieved 27 April Languages of Iran. Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 29 May The Kurds: A Concise Handbook. Encyclopedia of Islam, Second Edition.

Brill Online. The Kurds, an Iranian people of the Near East, live at the junction of A Brief Survey of the History of the Kurds. Kurdish Institute of Paris.

University of Texas Press. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed. Retrieved 29 December Iranian Languages. Retrieved 2 December Writes about the problem of attaining a coherent definition of "Kurdish language" within the Northwestern Iranian dialect continuum.

There is no unambiguous evolution of Kurdish from Middle Iranian, as "from Old and Middle Iranian times, no predecessors of the Kurdish language are yet known; the extant Kurdish texts may be traced back to no earlier than the 16th century CE.

To attain a fuller understanding of the difficulties and questions that are raised by the issue of the 'Kurdish language,' it is therefore necessary to consider also non-linguistic factors.

Excerpt: "This view was criticised by the linguist D. MacKenzie, according to whom there are but few linguistic features that all Kurdish dialects have in common and that are not at the same time found in other Iranian languages.

However, for the time being the commonly accepted classification of the Kurdish dialects is that of the late Prof. Mackenzie, the author of fundamental works in Kurdish dialectology see Mackenzie ; idem —; idem a; idem , who distinguished three groups of dialects: Northern, Central, and Southern.

Retrieved 11 August Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 June Philip Kreyenbroek and Stefan Sperl p. The Reckoning: Iraq and the Legacy of Saddam.

Norton and Co. However, this State Dept. Concordia University. Archived from the original on 20 August Paper presented at the Freie Universitat Berlin.

For the figure, cites: McDowall, David London: Minority Rights Group. In this light the Soviet Kurds may be considered to be an ethnic group in their own right.

Institute of Estonia EKI. Retrieved 22 June Sperl eds. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East.

Infobase Publishing. Retrieved 30 January Journal of the American Oriental Society. Part I: Origins and early migrations".

Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology. West 1 January Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Retrieved 4 March The Kurds: A contemporary overview.

MacKenzie Transactions of the Philological Society. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. Iranica Online. Wiesbaden: Dr.

Ludwich Reichert, , pp. If there was a Kurdish-speaking subjected peasantry at that time, the term was not yet used to include them.

Archived from the original PDF on 15 October Retrieved 23 June Shoup III 17 October A Modern History of the Kurds Third ed. Iranian Studies.

Iran and the Caucasus. Retrieved 2 March Guilford, Connecticut: Four Quarters Publishing. Berkeley: University of California Press , pp.

Parole de l'Orient. XVII : — Seminar at the American University of Beirut , pp. In Tamari, Steve ed. The Kurds.

The Jews of Khazaria. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc. The beginnings of ancient Kurdistan c. Leiden University , pp. Peacock "Shaddadids".

Retrieved 7 July Gunter, Michael Historical dictionary of the Kurds. Scarecrow Press. Ahmad "Annazids". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p.

Daftary, "Intellectual Traditions in Islam", I. Tauris, It means your messages will be responded by people from various part of the world whom has joined in the room right away.

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